La Torre de Pisa

Panorámica de la catedral románica de Pisa con el baptisterio, el duomo, el camposanto y el campanile en 1909.

Panorámica de la catedral románica de Pisa con el baptisterio, el duomo, el camposanto y el campanile en 1909.

Si algún monumento caracteriza o simboliza Italia, este es sin duda la Torre inclinada de Pisa “Torre Pendente”.
Iniciada su construcción el 9 de agosto de 1173, la misma se prolongó en tres etapas a lo largo de 200 años.
Su función es la de campanario y se integra dentro del conjunto arquitectónico de la “Piazza dei Miracoli” compuesto por cuatro estructuras de estilo pisano-románico de marmol blanco que conforman el monumento religioso más preciado del noroeste italiano.

Esas cuatro estructuras son: “il Duomo” (catedral), “il Battisterio”, “il Campanile” y por último “il camposanto”.
Al parecer fue Gabriele D’Annunzio (Pescara, 1863 – Gardone Riviera (Brescia), 1938), célebre poeta italiano, quien formalizó la denominación de “Piazza dei Miracoli” en referencia a la enorme explanada medieval, totalmente tapizada de hierba fresca – conocida también como “Campo dei Miracoli” (Campo de los Milagros) – que está situada en la parte noroeste del centro histórico de la ciudad y que originariamente era llamada “Piazza del Duomo”.

Foto: Smial. El Duomo al atardecer. (wikimedia commons)

Foto: Smial. El Duomo al atardecer. (wikimedia commons)

La catedral, el maravilloso Duomo, de cerca de 100 metros de longitud y 54 de altura, tiene diseño de cruz latina y su estilo es fundamentalmente románico, aunque presenta determinados elementos de otros estilos. Algunos anticipan el Renacimiento mientras otros evocan aspectos arquitectónicos de Oriente Medio, lo que confiere a la Catedral unas características tan distintivas como excelsas. Su construcción se inició en el año 1064, a cargo del arquitecto toscano Bruschetto di Giovanni, y aunque la fachada no se concluyó hasta entrado el s. XIII, fue consagrada por el Papa Gelasio II en 1118.
La catedral, que está dedicada a la Virgen y recibe el nombre de “Duomo di Santa Maria”, es famosa también por sus coros llamados “Cappella musicale”, cuyo origen se remonta al año 1264 cuando se fundó “Il Magiscolato”, el primitivo conjunto de “Canonici cantors” quienes, bajo la dirección del primer “Magister scholarum”, llamado Pace, confería solemnidad a las celebraciones litúrgicas con los cantos gregorianos. Desde 1992, el coro está a cargo del prestigioso compositor y organista Riccardo Donati.
El Duomo de Pisa se puede visitar todos los días. En invierno: de 10 a 13 y de 15 a 17 horas. En verano: de 10 a 20 horas. El precio de la entrada es de 2 €.
Foto: Blorg. Battisterio di San Giovanni. (wikipedia commons)

Foto: Blorg. Battisterio di San Giovanni. (wikipedia commons)

El Baptisterio, dedicado a San Juan Bautista, fue empezado a construir en el s. XII, “1153 Mense August fundata fuit haec («En el mes de agosto de 1153 fue aquí fundada…»)”, como consta en las inscripciones que hay en los pilares situados junto a la puerta de entrada y Lo diseñó casi por entero el Maestro Diotisalvi, un prestigioso arquitecto toscano de la época, aunque la construcción, sin embargo, no terminó hasta el siglo XIV, cuando la loggia, la planta superior y la cúpula fueron añadidos en estilo gótico por Nicola y Giovanni Pisano.
Diotisalvi concibió un edificio religioso de enormes proporciones en mármol blanco y de planta circular en conmemoración a la “Rotonda de la Anástasis”, el grandioso mausoleo situado sobre el Santo Sepulcro de Jerusalén.
Es el baptisterio más grande de Italia. Su circunferencia mide 107,25 metros y la altura es de 75 metros. Contando la estatua de san Juan Bautista (atribuida a Turino di Sano) en la parte superior de la cúpula, es incluso unos centímetros más alto que la Torre Inclinada.
La magnífica cúpula se sustenta sobre ocho columnas y cuatro pilares con espléndidos capiteles tallados, lo que produce un efecto de luminosidad y de solemnidad sorprendentes. Asimismo es de destacar la acústica del interior.
En el centro de la planta se encuentra la elegante pila bautismal octogonal de mármol blanco, obra del insigne escultor gótico lombardo Guido Bigarelli da Como (activo entre 1238 c. y 1257) y en el centro de la pila se alza la hermosa escultura de bronce que representa a San Juan Bautista, realizada en 1929 por el renombrado escultor italiano Italo Griselli (1880-1950). Junto a la pila está situado el sobresaliente e innovador púlpito de mármol blanco de Nicola Pisano, quien empezó a realizar la obra en 1260.
El Battistero di San Giovanni abre todos los días en los siguientes horarios:
De Abril a Septiembre: de 8 a 19,30 horas.
En Marzo y en Octubre: de 9 a 17,30 horas.
De Noviembre a Febrero: de 10 a 16 horas.
El precio de entrada es de 5 euros.
Foto: JoSan. Camposanto Monumental de Pisa. (wikimedia commons)

Foto: JoSan. Camposanto Monumental de Pisa. (wikimedia commons)

El Camposanto monumentale («cementerio monumental») queda en el límite norte de la plaza. Es un cementerio tapiado. Se dice que se erigió sobre una carga de suelo sagrado procedente del Gólgota, traído a Pisa durante la Cuarta Cruzada por Ubaldo de’ Lanfranchi, arzobispo de Pisa en el siglo XII.
Como consta en la inscripción que se halla junto a la verja derecha, su construcción empezó en 1277. Fue obra del prestigioso arquitecto pisano Giovanni di Simone, quien dirigió las obras hasta su fallecimiento, acaecido en 1284. Es presumible que el arquitecto participara en la célebre Batalla de Meloria, librada contra la República de Génova ese mismo año.
Después de una larga interrupción, el Cementerio se terminó de construir en la segunda mitad del siglo XIV.
El muro exterior reúne cuarenta y tres arcos ciegos y dos puertas de entrada. La principal está situada a la derecha y está coronada por una espléndida hornacina gótica que incluye una “Madonna con Bambino e Santi” del siglo XIV, atribuida a un seguidor del famoso escultor Andrea Pisano.
El interior, contiene una amplia colección de esculturas romanas y sarcófagos, pero sólo quedan 84. Los muros estuvieron recubiertos de frescos, los primeros de 1360, los últimos de tres siglos más tarde. Las Historias del Antiguo Testamento de Benozzo Gozzoli (siglo XV) estaban en la galería norte, mientras que la arcada meridional era famosa por las Historias del Génesis de Piero di Puccio (finales del siglo XV). El fresco más destacado era el realista Triunfo de la Muerte, obra de Buonamico Buffalmacco. Pero el 27 de julio de 1944 los Aliados lanzaron bombas incendiarias que prendieron fuego al tejado y los cubrió de plomo fundido, destruyéndolos. Desde 1945 las obras de restauración han ido avanzando y actualmente el Camposanto ha recuperado su estado original.
La visita al camposanto, no puede concluir sin la visita al “Museo delle Sinopie”. En este interesantísimo museo están asimismo expuestos muchos apuntes originales de los frescos que recubrían las paredes del claustro del Cementerio antes del desastre que la Segunda Guerra Mundial causó en la ciudad de Pisa, a escasos diez meses de que acabara la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Italia. Asimismo, en el museo se muestra detalladamente cómo se lleva a cabo el proceso de composición de los frescos.
El Cimitero Monumentale abre todos los días. De Noviembre a Febrero: de 10 a 16,30 horas. En Marzo y en Octubre: de 9 a 17,30 horas. De Abril a Septiembre: de 8 a 19,30 horas.
El billete de entrada está incluido en el de la visita a otros monumentos situados en la Piazza dei Miracoli.
Foto: Jonik. Torre de Pisa. (wikimedia commons)

Foto: Jonik. Torre de Pisa. (wikimedia commons)

Para el final hemos dejado la Torre Inclinada, Il Campanile, la Torre Pendente, el gran símbolo monumental de Pisa y de toda Italia.
La Torre, que es el campanario de la Catedral y es, asimismo, el tercer edificio de la Piazza dei Miracoli, de forma cilíndrica, consta de ocho alturas y su altitud total a partir de los cimientos es de 58,36 metros. Tiene un diámetro exterior de 15,48 metros y el interior es de 7, 36 metros. Se recubrió totalmente de mármol blanco y el exterior cuenta con incrustaciones en mármoles de distintos colores.
La construcción de la Torre, que data de Agosto de 1173, se llevó a cabo fundamentalmente (al igual que la totalidad de la Piazza dei Miracoli) para dar a conocer en todo el litoral mediterráneo el grado de prosperidad que había alcanzado la República Marinera de Pisa, que en aquella época se encontraba en la cima de su esplendor debido a los privilegios obtenidos durante su participación en las Cruzadas, al haber sido una de las mayores transportistas navales de armamento a Palestina. Razón por la cual, la República de Pisa se convirtió en una de las principales importadoras de mercancías de Medio Oriente a Europa occidental.
Muchos historiadores de arte consideran que la construcción de la Torre Inclinada se realizó a partir del diseño del prestigioso arquitecto y escultor pisano Bonnano Pisano (activo entre 1170 c. y 1186 c.) quien empezó a dirigir las obras, mientras otros la atribuyen al Maestro Diotisalvi.
En 1185 c., cuando había concluido la construcción de la tercera altura de la Torre, el edificio empezó a acusar una inclinación hacia el suroeste de 5 cm., aproximadamente, ya que los cimientos de la inmensa torre se habían fijado a una profundidad de menos de tres metros en un terreno no adapto e inestable.
Las obras se paralizaron hasta alrededor del año 1272. La continuidad de las mismas se encargó al ilustre arquitecto Giovanni di Simone, quien construyó otras tres alturas con una inclinación contraria a la anterior. Giovanni di Simone demostró su gran profesionalidad, al ser capaz de reducir el grado de inclinación de la Torre, que en aquel momento superaba los 90 cm. En 1284, la Torre alcanzaba una altura de 48 metros y ya se habían terminado de construir 6 niveles de logias, pero las obras se interrumpieron una vez más a causa de las luchas encarnizadas entre la República de Pisa y la República de Génova, que culminaron con la derrota definitiva de la flota de Pisa en la Batalla de Meloria (6 de Agosto de 1284), lo que generó una considerable pérdida de poder a la ciudad.
La camareta que remata las seis alturas de logias se terminó de construir en 1372. Fue obra del gran arquitecto y escultor Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, hijo del celebérrimo Andrea.
Pisano corrigió en gran medida el eje, reduciendo la inclinación en el lado en la que se acusaba la misma, quedando inalterada hasta las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. Posteriormente, la Torre siguió inclinándose, incrementándose en 1 milímetro al año.
Se dice que Galileo Galilei dejó caer dos bolas de cañón de diferente masa desde la torre para demostrar que la velocidad de descenso era independiente de la masa. La historia, aunque descrita por un estudiante del propio Galileo, se considera un mito.
En 1838 el arquitecto Alessandro Della Gherardesca excavó un camino alrededor de la torre para hacer visible la base. Esto causó una inundación de la base y de nuevo un incremento de su inclinación.
En 1934 Benito Mussolini ordenó colocar la torre en posición vertical, por lo que se vertió cemento en su base, para evitar filtraciones. El resultado fue inesperado, la torre se hundió aun más en la tierra reblandecida.
Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial la armada de los Estados Unidos destruyó todas las torres cercanas en Pisa debido a la amenaza que suponían los francotiradores desde esas posiciones. Se programó la voladura de la Torre inclinada, pero una orden de retirada en el último instante la salvó de la destrucción.
El 27 de febrero de 1964, el gobierno de Italia pidió ayuda para prevenir la caída de la torre. Un conjunto de ingenieros, matemáticos e historiadores se asignó al proyecto y debatieron sobre los métodos de estabilización en las Islas Azores. Tras dos décadas de trabajo, la torre fue cerrada al público en enero de 1990, al considerarse que se encontraba casi a punto de derrumbarse. Se consiguió enderezarla 45 cm., devolviéndola a la misma posición que tenía en el siglo XIX.
Para poder drenar el suelo, la Torre se aseguró con cables de acero y se situaron en ella 600 toneladas de pesas para controlar la inclinación. A continuación, se comenzaron las obras de enderezamiento del edificio. Se extrajeron del subsuelo del lado norte de la estructura más de 700 toneladas de tierra, produciendo un hundimiento en esa parte. En Diciembre de 2001, después de haber restaurado también toda la cantería, la Torre se reabrió al público.
El interior de la Torre tiene forma de campana cilíndrica. Una escalera de caracol formada por 239 escalones conduce a la camareta del campanario. En el interior de la camareta hay un total de siete campanas que corresponden a las notas musicales de una escala mayor. La de mayor tamaño se colocó a mediados del siglo XVII.
Todos los monumentos que se erigieron en esta enorme y maravillosa plaza se construyeron como una alegoría de la vida de Jesús: El Baptisterio simboliza Su Nacimiento; el Duomo (Catedral) viene a significar Su Vida; el Cementerio representa Su Pasión y Sepultura, mientras que el Campanario es tanto la Anunciación a la Santísima Virgen como la Resurrección de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo.

Foto: Sailko. Vista panorámica de la Piazza dei Miracoli. (wikimedia commons)

Foto: Sailko. Vista panorámica de la Piazza dei Miracoli. (wikimedia commons)

4 - 07 - 2009

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